Quick Start Guides
Active Marker Tracking
Prepare Setup Area
Camera Mount Structures
Cabling and Wiring
Aiming and Focusing
Rigid Body Tracking
Camera Video Types
Reconstruction and 2D Mode
Motive Batch Processor
Motive UI Pages
Application Settings pane
Data Management pane
Data Streaming pane
Edit Tools pane
Graph View pane
Rigid Body pane
External Device Setup
AMTI Force Plate
Bertec Force Plate
The anterior and posterior views of the Biomech Markerset (49). The calibration markers are highlighted in red.
Left Anterior Head
Place the markers on the left and right side of the fore head. The respective location is shown in the skeleton figure.
Right Anterior Head
Left Posterior head
Place the markers on the left and right side of the head about 2 cm behind the ear. The respective location is shown in the skeleton figure.
Right Posterior head
Sternum Jugular Notch
Top most section of the sternum. Place the marker on the center of the two clavicle bones.
Sternum Xiphoid Process
Lowest section of the sternum. Place the marker 1-2 cm above where bottom of the two rib cages conjoin.
Cervical Spine Vertebra 7
The 7th cervical spine vertebra is the largest vertebra located at the most inferior region of the neck. This section usually protrudes to the posterior side and can be palpated.
Thoracic Spine Vertebra 2
The second thoracic spine vertebra is located three spine levels below the C7 vertebra. Which is located approximately at same height with shoulder joint markers.
Thoracic Spine Vertebra 7
Usually located at the center of the thoracic spinal column.
Upper Arm / Shoulder
Left Glenohumeral Joint
Place the marker on the posterior side of the shoulder axis. Ask the subject to posture in T-pose while placing the markers.
Upper Arm /Shoulder
Right Glenohumeral Joint
Note that the waist markers are the key markers in modeling the pelvis bone, which is the major segment governing the other subsequent skeleton segments.
Left Iliac Anterior Spine
Place the marker on the protruding bones located on the left and right side of the pelvis front.
Right Iliac Anterior Spine
Left Iliac Posterior Spine
Place each marker on the two dimples which can be palpated near the spine right above the hips.
Right Iliac Posterior Spine
Upper Extremity Markers
Left Clavicle-Acromion Joint
Ask the subject to stretch both arms towards the side (T-pose), then palpate top of each shoulder for the protruding bone. The prominence is usually located at the end of the corresponding clavicle bone just before where the upper arm starts.
Right Clavicle-Acromion Joint
Left Humerus Lateral Epicondyle
Placed the markers on the lateral side of the elbow axis. Flex and extend the arm few times to find where elbow axis is located.
Right Humerus Lateral Epicondyle
Left Humerus Medial Epicondyle
Place on the medial side of the elbow axis. Ask the subject to flex and extend the arm while placing the markers.
Right Humerus Medial Epicondyle
Left Upper Arm
Ask the subject to stand in T-pose while placing the marker. Palpate to find the groove between the triceps muscles where skin movements are relatively minimal.
Right Upper Arm
For best results, place the three hand markers so the created shape is asymmetrical (avoid isosceles shape) and unique from the marker arrangements on the other hand. Since the wrist markers have defined placement — along the wrist axis — introduce small amount of positional offset to the LHM2 and RHM2 markers.
Left Hand Second metatarsal
Place the marker slight below the knuckle of the index finger.
Right Hand Second metatarsal
Left Ulna Styloid Process
Place the marker on the lateral side of the wrist axis.
Right Ulna Styloid Process
Left Radius Styloid Process
Place the marker on the medial side of the wrist axis.
Right Radius Styloid Process
Lower Extremity Markers
The joint center of the knee and the ankle is modeled at the midpoint of the lateral and medial joint markers (FLE/FME and FAL/TAM). Assuming that center of the femoral head aligns with the center of the acetabulum, its virtual location is modeled using markers on the pelvis segment (posterior and anterior iliac spine markers). The lower extremity segments are modeled along these three virtual locations.
Left Femoral greater Trochanter
Place the markers on left and right side of the hip, where you can palpate the hip joint or the most lateral prominence of the greater trochanter.
Right Femoral greater Trochanter
Left Femur Lateral Epicondyle
Place the marker on the lateral prominence of the knee joint axis. More specifically, the marker should be placed on the femur epicondyle. You may need to ask the subject to flex and extend the knee few times to locate the axis.
Right Femur Lateral Epicondyle
Left Femur Medial Epicondyle
Place the marker on the Medial prominence of the knee joint axis. Ask the subject to flex and extend the knee few times to locate the knee axis.
Right Femur Medial Epicondyle
Place the markers at the front center of the thigh near the midline. This marker is placed for distinguishing left and right side of the skeleton. For best results, slightly offset the height of right and left marker to introduce an asymmetry.
Left Superior Knee
Place the markers on the shin bone near the midline of the lower leg. This marker is placed for distinguishing left and right side of the skeleton. For best results, slightly offset the height of right and left marker to introduce an asymmetry.
Right Superior Knee
Left Tibial Tubercle
Place the marker about 2-3 cm below the knee cap bone. This marker should be placed on the most anterior point of the tibial tuberosity.
Right Tibial Tubercle
Left Fibula Apex
While standing, place the markers approximately 5 cm below the LFLE and RFLE markers. This marker should be placed on the lateral prominence of proximal end of the fibula.
Right Fibula Apex
Left Fibula Ankle Lateral
Place the maker on the lateral side of the ankle axis; on the lateral prominence of the lateral malleolus bone.
Right Fibula Ankle Lateral
Left Talus Ankle Medial
Place the maker on the medial side of the ankle axis; on the medial prominence of the medial malleolus bone
Right Talus Ankle Medial
Left Foot Fifth Metatarsal
Place the marker on the dorsal aspect of the fifth metatarsal bone.
Right Foot Fifth Metatarsal
Left Foot Second Metatarsal
Place the marker on the dorsal aspect of the second metatarsal bone.
Right Foot Second Metatarsal
Left Foot First Metatarsal
Place the marker on the dorsal aspect of the first metatarsal bone.
Right Foot First Metatarsal
Left Foot Calcaneus
Place the marker on center of the heel, where the Achilles tendon attaches to the calcneous bone.
Right Foot Calcaneus (Heel)
Left First Distal Phalanx
Place the marker near the end of the big toe. More specifically, the marker should be placed at the distal end of the first phalanges.
Right First Distal Phalanx
Leardini, A., Biagi, F., Merlo, A., Belvedere, C., Benedetti, M.G., 2011. Multi-segment trunk kinematics during locomotion and elementary exercises. Clin. Biomech. 26, 562-571.
Leardini, A., Sawacha, Z., Paolini, G., Ingrosso, S., Nativo, R., Benedetti, M.G., 2007. A new anatomically based protocol for gait analysis in children. Gait Posture 26. 560-571.
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This page was last modified on 23 January 2017, at 13:48.
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